The Imam's Background
Rouhullah Khomeini was born on the 24th of September 1902. His father was Agha Mustafa Mujtahid Kamareh'i. Rouhullah was the grandson of Sayyid Ahmad, and the great grandson of Deen Ali Shah.
Deen Ali Shah lived in the Khorassan area but due to the civil conflicts among the three tribes: Afshar, Zand and Qajar, he had to leave Khorassan for India. India at that time was a peaceful country, which attracted many immigrants. The main reason behind Ali Shah's departure to India was the advantages Muslims enjoyed in India during that time. India was famous for being peaceful, and we can see this in Saeeb's following saying, who was a famous Persian poet at that time, "All hearts like to go to India."
Sayyid Ahmad, who was Ali Shah's son, was born in India. After a short time, India underwent political turmoil. The Shia, who were in power at the time, lost their authority and the British forces ceased this opportunity and took over. Sayyid Ahmad left India for Iraq in order to free himself of the British rule.
In Iraq, where Shia Imams are buried and their holy shrines are located, Sayyid Ahmad met Yusuf Khan Kamareh'i, who was a pilgrim there. Yusuf Khan invited Sayyid Ahmad to join him in Khomein, and so Sayyid Ahmad entered Khomein before 1825 when Mozzafar al-Deen Shah was in power.
Sayyid Ahmad married Sakina in Khomein. She was the daughter of Mohammad Hassan Baik, also known as Yusuf Khan's sister. They had four children, three daughters and one son. Their daughters were called Sultan, Agha Banoo, and Sahib .Their son's name was Mustafa. Sayyid Ahmad was known to be strict in religious affairs and to defend the weak. His daughter Sahib Khanom, in the words of Ayatollah Passandideh, "inherited the braveness of her father". She took care of her brothers and sisters after losing their father.
Sayyid Ahmad passed away in 1869 in Khomein. His life was full of struggles and hardships. He was buried in Karbala.
Agha Mustafa Mujtahid Kamareh'i --Imam Khomeini's father…
The last child of Sayyid Ahmad and Sakina was born on Thursday evening in Rajab, in 1862 and in the Razi district of Khomein. Agha Mustafa lost his father when he was less than eight years old. He went to a school called maktabkhaneh, which taught Islamic studies. After finishing his education in this school he went to Isfahan to pursue further education. In Isfahan he attended the lectures of great scholars such as Agha Najafi and Agha Fesharaki. After staying in Isfahan for some time, he left for Najaf in 1888. The following scholars are among the many who lectured him in Najaf: Akhond Khorassani, Mirzaye Shirazi, Shaikh Abdullah Mazandarani and Mirzaye Naeen. Agha Mustafa studied there for eight years and gained a degree in 'discretion in passing judgments'. He used his time in Najaf productively and left for Khomein in 1894.
When he returned to Khomein, he was 33 years old. He was young and energetic. Living in Najaf created a suitable opportunity for Mustafa to become familiar with political affairs and different social problems. Thus he used his political experiences when he returned to his hometown. Like other leading figures, he gathered a group to defend and protect his family and people who were with him. After the year 1896, namely after the assassination of Nasser- e-dean Shah, Iran underwent chaos and insecurity, thus Agha Mustafa's role became more distinguished. Due to his good reputation among the people, they gathered round him and saw his territory as a secure and safe shelter, "It was the place to take sanctuary".
Marriage and the children
Agha Mustafa married Hajar, the daughter of his teacher, Haj Mirza Ahmad. This couple had six children and among them was Rouhullah (aka Imam Khomeini), who was born in 1902. All their children, except for their first daughter, were born in Khomein.
Assassination of Agha Mustafa
Agha Mustafa had a shorter life compared to his contemporaries. His enmity against Braham Khan, one of Khomein's powerful figures had grave consequences. Mustafa opposed the Khan's oppressive character and so conflicts arose and this resulted in the loss of Mustafa's life. Charged with many crimes, the authorities arrested Braham Khan and kept him in prison, where he died. The Khan's brothers, who were unable to protest against the local authority, pretended to be obedient. They devised a plan to kill Mustafa on a cold winter day. Their plans were successful as they finally killed Mustafa on the 13th of February 1903.On that day Agha Mustafa was on his way to Sultan Abad, when the brothers of Braham Khan, who went by the name of Reza Qoli and Ja'far Khan, hid in a bush and shot him. The news of Mustafa's assassination soon reached Iraq. People attacked the killers' residence and burnt it down. In addition a large number of people gathered to grieve the loss of this great man and give their condolences to Mustafa's family.
The daily newspaper 'IRAN', reported this tragic event in detail. Azadol Sultan, who was in charge of this case, did his utmost to catch the men in charge of this murder. Sultan Reza Qoli, who was one of the murderers died before he was arrested. Nevertheless the family of Mustafa did not give up and insisted on getting justice. In the meantime Ja'far Qoli Khan, who also took part in the murder, was arrested. Due to Mustafa's family's insistence Mozzafar Al-Deen Shah ordered the execution of Ja'far Qoli, and so he was executed on the 10th of May 1904 in Tehran.
A writer described this event in detail. He wrote: "While the King was on his way to Europe such an incident took place." 'Adab' another newspaper also mentioned this and wrote that "the people of the capital city of Tehran were glad of the outcome of the case".
Imam Khomeini's mother was called Hajar and she was the daughter of Mirza Ahmad Mujtahid. Mirza Ahmad went by the title Akhond and was the son of Mullah Hussein Khansari, who was one of the offspring of Mullah Hayder Khansari. Mullah Haydar was a great scholar and lived at the time of Shah Abbas the 1st. He wrote two books entitled; Mazyaaayan and Zandol Tassanif.
Mirza Ahmad was born around the middle of the nineteenth century in Khomein. His father led the congregational prayers and gave lectures in the Mosque in Khomein. One of Mirza Ahmad's pupils was Agha Mustafa, who later became his son-in-law. Mirza Ahmad was famous for his honesty and had a good reputation among the people. Akhond died 7 years before the birth of his grandson, Rouhullah.
Hajar (Imam Khomeini's mother)
Hajar was the eldest daughter of Mirza Ahmad and was born between the years 1868 and 1872 in Khomein. Her father was a famous scholar and the leader of the congregational prayers of the central Mosque in that city.
Agha Mustafa was the student of Mirza Ahmad. He married Hajar in 1882. After two years they left Khomein for Najaf. Mustafa continued his studies in Najaf and returned home after 8 years, where he had six children. The last one was Rouhullah (aka Khomeini). Rouhullah was about four months old when he lost his father. Hajar did not let Agha Mustafa's murderers get away easily and fought for justice to be carried out. Although Hajar was young and could marry again, she preferred to spend her life bringing up her children. Her sister-in- law Sahib Khanoom helped her bring up the children. Two of Agha Mustafa's sons chose to be clergymen, so their mother sent them to Isfahan. Morteza and Noor-e-Deen went to howza (university of Jurisprudence and Islamic studies), but Rouhullah was kept in Khomein. Hajar sent Rouhullah to school too so that he would not miss out. Hajjar was quite popular among the people. She died at the age of fifty and was buried in Qom.
Childhood and Parents
Imam Khomeini was born in the town of Khomein, about 350 kms south of Tehran in the central province, on the 20th of Jamadi-Al-Thani, the year 1320 L.H.,(September 24, 1902). Also the birth anniversary of Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Prophet Mohammea (peace be upon him). He was named Ruhollah. The sprit of God.
His father, Ayatollah Seyyed Mostafa Musavi, assumed the religious leadership of the people of Khomein and the nearby villages after his return from the Islamic theology center in the city of Najaf, Iraq. But only a few months after Ruhollah was born, his father was fatally wounded by bandits on the road to Arak, north of Khomein. He was 47.
Imam Khomeini`s mother, Hajar, was also of a prominent religious family. She was the daughter of an Ayatollah Mirza Ahmad, a scholar and teacher in Karbala and Najaf theological centers, in Iraq. She also passed away when the Imam was only 15.
Despite these personal disasters, the Imam remained resistant and began using his talent and intelligence in learning Islamic sciences --first under his brother, Ayatollah Seyyed Morteza Pasandideh. Later he went to the theological school in Arak where he attended the classes of the prominent scholar of his time, Haj Sheikh Abdulkarim Haeri Yazdi. He also mastered Arabic literature.
After top theologians moved from Arak to the holy city of Qom, the Imam intensified his studies and completed the highest level of theology by 1927, and soon later was pronounced a mujtahid, qualified jurist, by his senior tutors. He specialized in various fields other than Fiqh (jurisprudence), including Philosophy, Irfan and Ethics.
Political Life before 1963
Known for his strong political views against the regime, the security agents of Reza Khan, the founder of the Pahlavi dynasty, were ordered to restrict the Imam's activities. But the Imam continued his gradual but firm effort to spread his enlightening message to masses.
After the death of Ayatollah Borujerdi, the paramount shia leader of the time, the Imam was chosen his successor by the Ulema and people. With this, his cultural Jihad against the monarchy gathered momentum in 1961, reaching a climax in 1963.
On June 3rd of that year the Imam made a historical speech against the dependence of the Shah's regime on foreign powers and its support of the Israel. He also stressed on the role of the Ulema in society.
The Imam was immediately arrested on June 5th. But his powerful speech brought the people of Qom out into the streets. News reached other cities and for two days people in several major cities including Tehran, demonstrated against the Shah and in support of the Imam.
On June 5th, troops supported by tank were deployed crush the growing movement. Many are massacre and the Shah's dictatorial regime appeared to have achieved victory. But the seed of the Islamic Revolution had been planted.
In Exile 4/11/1964-3/10/1978
Following the Imam's arrest, the regime came under sever pressure from the Ulema and the massage. On November 4th, the Imam was sent into exile. He was first deported to Turkey and then to Iraq where he took up residence in Najaf.
Still determined to act according to his religious responsibility the Imam escalated his political struggle. This further added to the religious and political awareness and maturity of the Iranian people that was demonstrated by their angry and massive response to the murder of Haj Mostafa Khomeini, the Imam's eldest son, in the winter o f1977 by the agents of the Shah's secret police, the Savak.
The martyrdom of Haj Mostafa, as well as an insulting article printed in the daily Ettela`at on Savak`s order, prompted mourning a protest gathering in major cities. Many people were killed in demonstrations and the regime decided that the only way to calm the situation was to prevent the Imam's inspirational message reach the people.
The Shah demanded and received cooperation from the Iraqi regime and the Imam was expelled on 3 October 1978.
Migration (Oct. 3, 1978-Feb. 1, 1979)
Imam Khomeini set out for Kuwait on October 3rd 1978 but was denied entry by the government. After consulting with his son, Ahamad, the Imam decided to go to France where he arrived on October 5th and a few days later took up residence in the small village of Neuphle le Chateau.
In Iran mass protests against the regime and the continued exile of the Imam grew to such an extent that it become impossible to control and suppress completely.
The Imam made frequent speeches, sent messages to the Iranian nation, gave numerous interviews to the media, outlining the liberation- seeking values and ideas of Islam and explained the framework of the Islamic state based on divine justice.
The ruling regime was facing a serious crisis. The West forced the Shah to leave Iran to allow the newly formed "liberal" Bakhtiar government to gain legitimacy in the eyes of the people. But the Imam still held the initiative: he was determined to return to Iran. The nation prepared for the greatest home coming ceremony in history. The Imam left Paris for Tehran on 1 February 1979.
Return to Home 1/2/1979
The streets o Tehran was packed with millions of people, waiting enthusiastically to great the Imam.
The Plane carrying the Imam landed safely at Tehran's Merababd Airport. The Imam set foot on the Islamic homeland for the first time in more than 15 years. His first move upon arrival was to go to Behesht-e Zahra Cemetery to pay tribute to the martyrs of the Islamic Revolution.
Confident of victory, people rejected everywhere. The regime unleashed its last bullets. Love, courage, and martyrdom in the struggle led every step of the monarchical regime. The Islamic Revolution triumphed and true Mohammadan Islam spread its wings over Iran.
Everyday thousands of people rushed to see the Imam. An interim government was formed. The new state was gradually taking shape. The Imam insisted that the main institutions be set up. The people voted for the Islamic Republic and approved its constitution. Thus the first Islamic State after 1400 years was born.
The Islamic Republic of IRAN
After setting up the Islamic Republic of IRAN, Imam was no longer just a leader, but a caring, sincere, father. He even cared for those who have done wrong and lost their way. He was loved, even by the poor, the deprived and freedom fighters of other nations.
The Imam made most of his speeches during he period among 19979 - 1989. He gave out solutions, set the framework for principles of statementship. He not only explain the virtues of religion and ethics, but detailed the aims of the Islamic Republic and its domestic and foreign policies.
Farewell, and Mourning
After ten years, at 22:22 Saturday night June 3rd, 1989, the Imam passed away. The news was broadcast the following morning, the sense of loss was unbearable. Millions poured in from all part of country to participate in the biggest farewell in the history. The similar ceremonies were held, as well as in many Islamic countries and communities around the world.